HD group there are such a group of people in Chengdu, their skills have been passed on for th-cagliari exchange

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HD photo: in Chengdu there is a group of people who have skills inheritance for thousands of years — Sichuan channel — people.com.cn painting before, to protect the shaoxing. Liang Sicheng said, "it’s only a building, for thousands of years, it’s completely in the hands of a mechanic." Create a Chinese division of traditional architecture is fine, there are palm ink division, masonry, carpentry, bricklaying, Mason, painter, sculptor and even some buildings involved, clay sculpture division…… In Chengdu, there are such a group of people – the Wangjiang building will soon take off the thick ‘coat’ and meet the tourists. " In September 27th, the reporter learned from the relevant person in charge of Wangjiang Park, Chengdu, that the paint restoration project of Wangjiang building, which lasted for more than three months, will be completed in October. The Wangjiang building will be reopened in November. In Chengdu, all kinds of ancient buildings are regularly maintained by special craftsmen. The maintenance of ancient craftsmen, although the division is different, but their skills have been inherited for thousands of years. Once the paint is done, it will be grinded once after air is dried. A lacquerer humidity exceeds 80%, the paint was the most proper soil paint in the air a baptism, from yellow to black, quaint thick. It is the craftsmen that have been trained by the craftsmen in countless repair. Time back to a month ago, Chengdu was the hottest year in time, at noon, the reporter arrived at the construction site maintenance Wangjiang floor, outdoor temperature was already soared to 370C, however, was put on the floor with thick coat". "Now the temperature is high, but the humidity is not enough, the site of the Wangjiang building repair painter Xu Mingquan body has been soaked with sweat," the soil paint is a technology live, the best temperature is about 250C, humidity to more than 80%, out of the paint is the most comfortable." He greeted the workers a little rest, waiting for the day "". During that time, he picked up the brush in the paint barrel and drew a pen in the newspaper. He did a little experiment for the reporter. "Now, you see, the paint is yellow. After a few minutes, you can see what’s going on." During the conversation, Xu Mingquan looked up at the clouds from time to time and said to himself, "if it doesn’t rain for two days, it may need to be humidified artificially." He said "hand", is the use of wet Caolian hanging in the building, after the high temperature water transpiration of traditional "wet method". Xu Mingquan told reporters that the repair of Wangjiang building’s paint surface follows the principle of "from top to bottom", from cross beam to wall to floor. Before painting, the previous paint layer should be scraped off manually, then the bottom, the top coat and the frosted skin shall be used, and the last is the upper soil lacquer. In the gap of speech, Xu Mingquan did not forget the "small experiment", several times to open the painted newspapers to let reporters observe the subtle changes. Each observation, the soil yellow soil paint is discoloring, first of the pig liver red, and then deep red, dark brown, and finally the simplicity of the black. "The earth lacquer is baptized in the air, from the yellow to the black, the simple and heavy, this has achieved the effect we want." The coating process is essential for the maintenance of ancient buildings. Xu Mingquan said, "for example, the paint restoration of Wangjiang building should be done with sandpaper once every time it is dried, and then it will be painted and polished again, and there will be four layers. Also grinding technique, time consuming, not smooth, next time do not paint, each layer of paint, lacquer and from the proportion is different, hand kneading intensity is also different." Because of the complex process, the average workload of "Xu Mingquan" is not more than 10 square meters per day. This group of pictures by Zhao Yun reporter Xiao Yu Yang Haofei photo source: Sichuan daily 2016 09 month 30 days 07:30 share to: (Yuan Hanling Gao Hongxia, commissioning editor: carpenters) of antique buildings in the building. B’s eyes like a wood chisel cast as founder of wood to build a house, read and write on the wooden table…… The Chinese have special feelings about wood. The carpentry craftsman, in inheritance and creation, this kind of emotion to the extreme. What Luo Zhengming is good at is carpentry. Recently, he and the workers in the repair of Wuhou Temple temple, Jing Zhong Jian Xin ancient wooden building doors, East Hall, West hall. "The traditional architecture, in addition to the order based, riding the other stone, tile as part of the rest of the material are almost all wood, housing column, beam, Fang, purlins, rafters, doors and windows are in my business scope." Luo Zhengming said. The maintenance of Chengdu ancient architecture, must be in accordance with the characteristic of the traditional architecture of Sichuan. Luo Zhengming pointed to a decorative object under the eaves of the roof facade said, "this is called the bow, in order to ensure the strength of the support beams pick Fang, Sichuan craftsmen love plus a support in the pick Fang, a top pick in the lower Li Fang, Yan zhu." In addition to supporting arch, Luo Zhengming and his colleagues will create and create some house parts according to their living habits and aesthetic preferences, so that buildings can be livable. He told reporters that in Sichuan, many ancient buildings or antique buildings, decorations are under the eaves of a melon shape, "this is called the" Diaogua ‘, it is hanging in the pick Fang, symbolizing the occupants of the harvest every year, it will be carved lanterns, flowers of different shapes, both beautiful and can help bear the weight of purlin Fang pick pick." Although the work of woodworking has the space to create creativity, it is not "arbitrary". Most of the time, their work must follow the construction plan of "palm ink teacher". "The house back to play a few holes, each hole with what the shape and size of the tenon, Liang Zhu, purlin rafter made what, in what place has exquisite. Moreover, woodworking technology how, fully reflected in the subtle, such as chisel eyes, not crooked not oblique, cut out eyes to cast the same as founder. Woodworking chisel grip trained with regularity, the left arm must motionless, right hand axe will not fall hit the chisel oblique." Luo Zhengming said. Source: Sichuan daily 2016 09 month 30 days 07:30 share to: (Yuan Hanling, commissioning editor Gao Hongxia) in 2015, Du Fu Thatched Cottage invited the old artists to overhaul cottage cottage. C ink drawings of all housing repair creations in mind "palm ink division" is the ancient new houses when the whole presided over the construction of the "general engineer", from geomantic site selection, planning and design control of foundation excavation, processing to the ink line, palm frame, upper cap housing and a series of construction and supervision activities. Compared with the title of "expert", I prefer to position myself as a craftsman. What I do most is similar to the ancient "palm ink teacher". Experts in ancient architecture, has presided over Chengdu Qintai Road Reconstruction and reconstruction of Dujiangyan Laojun Pavilion Lu Jie told reporters. He said that Chinese create traditional architecture includes four aspects of technology, art, culture and wisdom, the division is quite fine, "there are palm ink division, masonry, carpentry, bricklaying, Mason, painter, sculptor and even some buildings involved, clay sculpture division……" In his view, the building of ancient buildings are the mouth down French master, this training craftsman must have "human network", the housing decoration drawings on their creations in the brain. This point of view, the reporter also found in Liang Sicheng’s "history of Chinese architecture" found the evidence: "the only building, thousands of years, completely in the hands of technical craftsmen. The artistic expression is the result of evolution from the most conscious of…… These nameless craftsmen have left many great wonders in the world, but in theory they are not parsing or boasting about themselves or their creation. " Lu Jie told reporters that in 1962, he received a difficult job. "I was going to move hundreds of old houses from the Shahe dam to the other place, and all the rooms must be kept as they were, and a piece of wood should not be mistaken." He recalls: "this is the test of palm ink division technology, good teachers can according to a house on the square root of wood, masonry, arranged in a range, only themselves to understand the symbols painted drawings, respectively, removed, and then assembled in different places…… I call this "mumbo-jumbo painting"." Years of work in the industry, many of the unwritten "French" have a user-friendly name or formula". For example, "three watts", meaning a is three houses, about ten thousand Piwa. "Let me out of this task for a long time, finally gradually find out of the doorway, and completed their own" mumbo-jumbo "perfect re built house." Not only that, in 80s, Lu Jie also presided over the repair of Nanchong kuixinglou building, was built in the Jiaqing kuixinglou building has been tipped tens of centimeters, the choice is either local repair, repair or demolition after the relocation. I checked the building itself and found that the beams and columns were completely preserved, neither corroded nor termite, so the local restoration was decided. " Later, Lu Jie with cameras kuixinglou picture from various angles, with wood according to the proportion of the production model. "I’ve studied for a long time at home, finally decided to remove the floor tiles, lighten the weight of buildings, and then use the jack and rope according to the principle of lever pry up the house of the local people, launched a donation of scrap metal, into the gap under the stairs, to the building body tilt correction." After years of talking about this experience, Lu Jie is still modest: "this is not what I can not explain the unique cheats, how clever, hundreds of years ago, the ordinary people of the house is so crooked repair, is the great wisdom of folk architecture." Source: Sichuan daily 2016 09 month 30 days 07:30 share to: (Yuan Hanling, commissioning editor Gao Hongxia) in 2015, Du Fu Thatched Cottage invited the old artists to overhaul cottage cottage. D skills later less lonely predicament, low income, work tired, young people are not willing to learn, and many similar traditional crafts, ancient craftsmen repair are now facing a dilemma of inheritance. "I have worked with more than 30 disciples for decades, but the number of people who are still engaged in traditional lacquer technology is less than half". When it comes to inheritance, Xu Mingquan is a bit lonely. "Now we have a low income and are very tired. Young people are reluctant to learn." More than 10 year old Xu Mingquan himself began to follow master learning soil paint skills, from the most basic to the ash scraping master boil paint technology, 6 years of studying hard, just start, no need to let others know. "Learn to do soil paint, everyone must go through this," allergy "allergy when body red itchy, but still have to work every day, or a period of time not to touch the earth again to paint, or allergy", one of his legs to scar told reporters, "this is when I was too sensitive to leave mark, I caught a rash. There is no other way, only hard for half a month and it will heal. " "Now the industry is not good enough. When I worked in Chengdu in the 80s of last century, I worked in the construction site during the day, but I couldn’t finish my private life at night, because people liked to invite workers to paint and carve furniture. But now, a year and a half time idle at home no way out." Xu Mingquan said. Similarly, Luo Zhengming also faced such embarrassment, "we are following the restoration and construction site, not speed, usually several months or even years to finish a project, very hard, not what young people want to learn." He told reporters that it’s hard to live alone now. He can only join a company that specializes in traditional architecture and garden restoration. "Though not as good as before, it can guarantee that there are several months in a year to get income on the construction site." Through the years the company to undertake the business, he also saw the other a slim chance of survival: "in recent years, more and more living, repair of antique buildings, our craft as a new arena." "Nowadays, there are very few people in Sichuan who are part of palm ink teachers and carpenters. Even the antique buildings can hardly be found according to the traditional construction requirements. Lu Jie’s eyes show regrets. Source: Sichuan daily 2016 09 month 30 days 07:30 share: (commissioning editor Yuan Hanling and Gao Hongxia) 高清组图:在成都有这样一群人 他们技艺都已传承上千年–四川频道–人民网   上漆之前,要对花雕进行保护。   梁思成说:“独是建筑,数千年来,完全在技工匠师之手。”中国传统建筑的营造分工相当精细,一般有掌墨师、木工、石工、瓦工、泥工、漆工,有些建筑甚至还涉及雕刻师、泥塑师……在成都,就有这样一群人――   望江楼马上就要脱下厚‘外套’和游客见面了。”9月27日,记者从成都市望江楼公园相关负责人处获悉,历时三个多月的望江楼漆面修复工程将于10月完工,望江楼将于11月重新对外开放。   在成都,各式古建筑都需要专门的工匠定期维护。这些维修古建的工匠,虽分工不同,但他们的技艺都已传承上千年。   每上一次漆,晾干后就要打磨一次。   A   漆工   湿度超过80%,漆面才最巴适   土漆在空气中洗礼一番,由黄变黑,古朴厚重。其中浸润的,是工匠们在无数次修复中练就的精湛技艺。   时间回溯到一个月前,正逢成都一年中最热的时候,中午时分,记者抵达望江楼的维修施工现场,当时的户外气温已经飙至370C,然而,望江楼却披上了厚厚的“外套”。“现在气温高,但湿度是不够的”,望江楼修复工地上的漆工许名全全身已被汗水浸透,“上土漆是技术活,气温最好在250C左右,湿度要超过80%,上出来的漆面才最巴适。”他招呼工友们稍作休整,静候“佳期”。在这段时间里,他随手拿起漆筒里的刷子在报纸上画了一笔,为记者做了一个“小实验”,“你看,现在的漆是土黄色,过几分钟你再来观察有啥变化。”谈话间,许名全不时抬头看看云层,自言自语:“如果这两天都不下雨,可能需要人工加湿。”他所说的“人工加湿”,是用浸湿了的草帘挂在建筑物内,经过高温蒸腾出水分的传统“加湿法”。   许名全告诉记者,望江楼漆面的修复遵循“从上到下”的原则,从横梁到墙面再到地板,上漆之前要先把以前的漆层手工刮掉,然后再打底子、刮面漆、磨砂皮,最后才是上土漆。说话的间隙,许名全没有忘记刚才的“小实验”,几次翻开涂了土漆的报纸让记者观察其中微妙的变化。每一次观察,土黄色的土漆都在变色,先是猪肝红,然后是深红、深棕,最后索性变成了古朴的黑色。“土漆在空气中洗礼一番,由黄变黑,古朴厚重,这才达到了我们想要的效果。”   上漆的工艺对于维修古建来说至关重要。许名全说,“比如望江楼的漆面修复,每上一次漆,晾干后就要用砂纸打磨一次,然后再上漆,再打磨,总共得上四层才行。打磨也讲技术、耗时间,没打磨光滑,下一次就不好上漆,每一层漆,生漆和熟漆的比例又都不同,用手揉的力度也不同。”正因工艺复杂,“许名全们”平均每天的工作量不会超过10平方米。   本组图片由 赵芸 本报记者 肖雨杨 郝飞 摄 来源:四川日报  2016年09月30日07:30 分享到: (责编:袁菡苓、高红霞)   木匠们在修建仿古建筑。   B   木工   凿出的眼像铸的一样方正   用木头修房子,在木桌旁看书写字……国人对木头有着特殊的情感。而做木工的匠人,则在传承和创造中将这种情感发挥到了极致。   骆正明擅长的是木工。最近,他和工友们就在修复武侯祠荐馨殿、旌忠门、东配堂、西配堂的木结构古建筑。“传统建筑中,除了房屋阶基、踏道等石作、瓦作的部分,其余的材料几乎都是木头,房屋的柱、梁、枋、檩、椽、门窗等都在我的业务范围内。”骆正明说。   在成都维修古建,一定是按照四川的传统建筑特色来的。骆正明指着一个屋顶立面檐口下的装饰物体说,“这个叫撑弓,为了保证挑枋支撑檩子的力度,四川的工匠们喜欢在挑枋下加一个支撑,上端支着挑枋,下端立在檐柱上。”除了撑弓之外,骆正明和他的同行们也会根据川人的居住习惯和审美偏好,别出心裁地“发明创造”一些房屋小部件,让建筑更宜居。他告诉记者,在川内不少古建筑或仿古建筑中,屋檐下都有一个瓜形状的装饰物,“那叫‘吊瓜’,它的正面挂在挑枋上,象征着居住者年年丰收,它会被雕成灯笼、花等不同的造型,既美观又能帮助挑枋承担挑檩的重量。”   木工的工作虽然有发挥创造力的空间,可并非“随心所欲”,绝大部分时间,他们的工作得跟着“掌墨师”的施工规划来。“房屋的脊梁上打几个孔,每个孔配什么形状、尺寸的榫,梁柱、檩椽做成什么样子,装在什么地方都有考究。而且,木工技术怎样,完全体现在细微处,比如凿眼时,要求不歪不斜,凿出的眼要像铸的一样方正。训练有素的木工,握凿的左臂必需纹丝不动,右手落斧砸凿才不会斜。”骆正明说。 来源:四川日报  2016年09月30日07:30 分享到: (责编:袁菡苓、高红霞)   2015年,杜甫草堂邀请老艺人对草堂茅屋进行了大修。   C   掌墨   修房造物图纸全在头脑里   “掌墨师”是古代修房造屋时全程主持建设的“总工程师”,掌控从堪舆选址、规划设计、地基开挖、来料加工到掌墨放线、房屋起架、上梁封顶等一系列建造、监督活动。   “相比‘专家’的称号,我更愿意把自己定位成‘工匠’,我所做的事情大部分类似于古代的‘掌墨师’。”古建筑专家、曾主持过成都琴台路改建及都江堰老君阁重建的鲁杰对记者表示。他介绍,中国传统建筑的营造包含技术、艺术、文化和智慧四个层面,故分工也相当精细,“一般有掌墨师、木工、石工、瓦工、泥工、漆工,有些建筑甚至还涉及雕刻师、泥塑师……”   在他看来,由于古建筑的营造法式都是师徒间口口相传下来的,这训练工匠必须具有“人脑网络”,修房造物图纸就在他们大脑里。这一观点,记者也在梁思成的《中国建筑史》中找到了印证:“独是建筑,数千年来,完全在技工匠师之手。其艺术表现大多数是不自觉的师承演变之结果……这些无名匠师,虽在实物上为世界留下许多伟大奇迹,在理论上却未为自己或其创造留下解析或夸耀。”   鲁杰告诉记者,1962年,他便接到一个棘手的工作。“当时准备把几百间老房子从沙河坝‘迁移’到异地,所有房间必须保持原样,不得弄错一根木头。”他回忆道:“这非常考验掌墨师的技术,好的师傅可以根据一栋房子上万根木料、砖石的方位、排布,用一种只有自己才看得懂的符号标画出图纸,分别作记,拆下来后,再在异地进行组装……我管这叫‘画天书’。”多年的工作中,行业中的很多不成文的“法式”都有了通俗易懂的名字或“口诀”。比如“万瓦三间”,意思是一个正三间的民居,大约要用一万匹瓦。   “这个任务让我苦思了很久,最后逐渐摸索出了门道,完成了属于自己的‘天书’,完美复建了房子。”不仅如此,上世纪80年代,鲁杰还主持修复了南充的魁星楼,“当时修建于嘉庆年间的魁星楼已经出现了几十厘米的倾斜,当时的选择是要么本地修复,要么拆除后外迁修复。我检查了建筑本身,发现梁柱保存很完整,既没有受潮腐蚀,也没有蚁患,所以决定本地修复。”之后,鲁杰用摄像机从各个角度拍下魁星楼的全貌,用木材按比例制作了模型。“我在家反复研究了很久,最后决定先把楼体的瓦片拆下,减轻楼体重量,然后用千斤顶和绳索根据杠杆原理把楼体整个撬起来,发动当地老百姓捐赠废铁,塞进楼梯下的缝隙,以此矫正了楼体的倾斜。”多年后谈到这段经历,鲁杰仍然很谦虚:“这其实并非什么独门秘籍,也不能说明我多么聪明,几百年前,普通老百姓家的房子歪了也是这么修的,是民间建筑的大智慧。” 来源:四川日报  2016年09月30日07:30 分享到: (责编:袁菡苓、高红霞)   2015年,杜甫草堂邀请老艺人对草堂茅屋进行了大修。   D   困境   技艺落寞,后来者少   收入低、干活累、年轻人不愿意学,和不少传统技艺相似,修古建的工匠们如今也面临着传承困境。   “我从业几十年也带了30多个徒弟,但是现在还在从事传统土漆技艺的人数还不到一半”,说到传承,许名全有点落寞,“现在干我们这行收入不高,还特别累,年轻人都不愿意学。”   许名全自己十多岁起便开始跟着师父学习土漆技艺,从最基础的刮灰到掌握熬漆的技术,学了6年方才出师,其中艰辛,不足为外人道。“学做土漆,每个人都要经历‘过敏’这关,过敏的时候全身发红发痒,但是仍然必须每天出工,不然一段时间不碰土漆,再来还是要过敏”,他指着腿上一个疤痕告诉记者,“这就是我当年过敏留下的痕迹,长了疹子被我抓烂了。没有其他办法,只有硬挨半个月等它痊愈。”“现在这个行业不好做,上世纪80年代我来成都打工的时候白天在工地上出工,晚上还有私活,做都做不完,因为那时候人们喜欢请工人做漆雕花家具。但现在,一年有一半的时间都闲在家里没活路。”许名全说。   与之类似,骆正明也面临这样的尴尬,“我们都是跟着工地走,修古建又不是速度活,通常几个月甚至几年才能做完一项工程,很辛苦,没什么年轻人想学。”他告诉记者,现在单靠自己接活很艰难,他只能加入了一家专门承接传统建筑、园林修复的公司,“虽然不如从前自由,但是好歹能保证一年的时间里有几个月在工地上,有收入。”通过这些年在公司承接的业务,他也看到了另一线生机:“近几年来,省内修仿古建筑的活路越来越多了,我们的手艺好像又有了新的用武之地。”“现在四川能兼任掌墨师和一线木工的人非常少,即使是仿古建筑,能按照传统的建造要求完成的工人也很难找了。”鲁杰眼中流露出遗憾。 来源:四川日报  2016年09月30日07:30 分享到: (责编:袁菡苓、高红霞)相关的主题文章: